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How to teach English using DRAMA?
- Develop their personal meaning and intentions
- Develop their personal response to and interpretation of English and drama
- Develop self-confidence and self-expression, through expressing themselves, working with others and having an impact on others
- Use talk flexibly to express themselves and their opinions and feelings, find their own voice, explore personal experience, build self-confidence and communicate with others, through engaging in formal and informal talk, including debating, listening, giving speeches and presentations
- Use the pupils themselves and their own experience as starting points for work on ‘Myself/my autobography’ for example
- Talking and writing about what has happened to me, what means something to me, what I care about, what makes me special, my likes and dislikes, where I live, my hopes and dreams
- Reading autobiographical literature and/or accounts of childhood
- Listening to personal accounts of others in the class
- One pilot school used English and drama to assist pupils to make the transition to secondary school by getting to know one another and explore their responses to anew school eg. through an ‘All about me’ project (undertaken jointly with other humanities subjects to form a humanities project)
SOCIAL SKILLS AND EMPATHY
- Link empathy with the central concept in English and drama of ‘point of view’, eg. through exploring texts written from a variety of viewpoints or different roles in drama
- Develop empathy through vivid/juicy experiences eg. through reading about characters in fiction, diaries, letters or playing them in role-play or hot seating
- Develop social skills, communication and empathy through interacting and collaborating with others through effective speaking and listening; one to one and in groups, through formal and informal talk, speeches and presentations – speaking, paraphrasing, acknowledging and listening to others’ points of view
- Link sympathy with the central concept in English of ‘audience’ – and learn how to write, speak, act to different purposes and audiences – which demands and ability to understand different views of the world
- Develop specific social and communication techniques through group work and/or drama such as active listening, mirroring, using and understanding facial expressions, assertion, conflict resolution, mediation, group decision making and ways to reach a consensus
- Adopt a range of roles in discussion, including acting a s a spokesperson and contribute in different ways to group work, such as promoting, opposing, exploring and questioning
- Develop the ability to empathise with people from different times and cultures through exploring literature written at other times and in other places
SPECIFIC CONTENT IDEAS
- Exploring empathy and social skills of various characters in books and films popularly used eg the Hobbitt (how the races of the Hobbits and Dwarves gradually lose their suspicion), Holes (children in the camp moving from enmity to teamwork that leads to their escape), Tracey Beaker (complex interplay of relationships between the children in the children’ home).
- Exploring how tabloid newspapers marginalise, demonise and reduce certain groups (eg, ‘foreigners’, ‘young hooligans’. Muslim extremists’, ‘scroungers’. ‘asylum seekers’) and the language and imagery they use to do it.
- Developing active listening skills through exercises in drama – playing the part of good and bad listeners and discussing how it feels
- Exploring how we make judgements about people, eg. snap judgement – top-slicing the information, instant body language choices based on how someone looks, our gut reactions (eg why did Harry Potter instantly stick up for Ron when he met him and Draco Malfoy together?)
- Thought tracking, externalising internal monologues in pairs, one the actor and one the voice to convey an internal state through body language
- Explore the concepts of developing understanding, meaning, intention and motivation in English and drama – ask key reasons why people create and enjoy the expressive arts
- Make meaning in their own lives eg. by understanding the central importance of having clear and strong goals, a vision, intentions and sound values
- Understand the idea of cause and effect in the context of English and drama. Eg. explore the links between character, motivation and plot and how outcomes for a story flow from the nature, intentions and personality of the people involved
- Identify, using appropriate terminology, the way writers match language and organisation to their intentions
- Structure a piece of writing or a speech in a well-organised, clearly sequenced, prioritised, logical and chronological way
- Use exploratory, hypothetical and speculative talk as a way of researching ideas and expanding thinking
- Work alone and with others to solve problems, make deductions, share, test and evaluate ideas
- Set personal targets
- Develop drama techniques and strategies for anticipating, visualising and problem solving in different learning contexts
- Develop their powers of critical reflection
SPECIFIC CONTENT IDEAS
- Explore the link between character and motivation. Take examples from fiction/biography and in their own writing/drama of characters, explore the impact of their motivation on the story/plot/outcomes fir the character and for others
- Solve problems, eg explore what went wrong for a character (in literature or in drama/role-play) due to their lack of motivation, persistence, resilience, goal setting etc. How might they have dealt with it better? What might have happened if they had?
- Explore the experience of characters who have difficulties that need to be overcome and problems to solve, in literature, writing and drama
- Compare characters in a story who have different degrees of motivation. Eg. degrees of vision, persistence, resilience, or who are motivated by different things and look at the outcomes that follow
- ‘What makes a hero?’ Explore the central role of motivation in the hero’s story/moral journey. Ie clear vision and purpose, persistence, resilience, courage, conviction – using books and films popular with the group. Eg Harry Potter, The Hobbitt, Holes, Tracey Baker, Artemis Fowl, The Lightning Tree, Whispers in the Dark, A Series of Unfortunate Events, Eragom, Dr Who
- Invite pupils to predict what will happen next in a story – involves considering intentions, causality and their link to outcomes
- Link the idea of creating a structure for a story (ie, with an arresting opening, a developing plot, a complication, a crisis and a satisfying resolution) with the idea of trying to tackle problems in real life, including exploring how far real life follows such neat patterns
- Pupils learn how to structure a piece of writing or a speech in a well organised, prioritised, logical and chronological way which makes cause and effect clear, eg collect, select and assemble ideas in a suitable format, such as a flow chart, list, star chart, or PowerPoint presentation, make clearly organised notes of key points for later use or to support a speech, organise texts in ways appropriate to their content and purpose, put a muddled story in a logical order
- Pupils identify and report the main points emerging from discussion, eg. to agree a course of action including responsibilities and deadlines
- Pupils set personal targets for English and drama, eg. to improve the presentation of their written work, improve spellings, speak up more often in class, take a lead role in drama, increase the descriptive power of their story telling etc
- Developing powers of critical reflection – through evaluating a piece of work and giving a considered, personal response to a presentation, play, script, film or performance through sharing views, or through keeping a reading journal
- Explore the idea of emotional engagement in literature and drama, exploring issues such as identification with character, search for emotional resonance and meaning and vivid/juicy emotional experience as some of the reasons why people create and go to the arts
- Give direct emotional experience in real time, for example through responding to a story, poem or film, or experiencing an event in drama or role-play
- Explore their emotional reactions to incidents, in literature, drama or real-life and compare their reactions with those of other people
- Develop the range, subtlety and depth of their emotional experience and expression
- Develop their language and whole body skills so they have a complex repertoire of vocabulary, facial and body language to express a wide range of emotions and feelings
- Develop their ability to use a range of devices to persuade and emotionally engage their audience, in speech, writing and drama eg. rhetoric (language), reiteration (echoing), exaggeration, repetition, suspense, withholding information, humour, emotive vocabulary
- Use talk and writing flexibly to express their feelings, find their own voice, explore personal experience, build their self-confidence and communicate their feelings to others, through engaging in formal and informal talk, eg. group work, pairs, role-play, debating, speeches and presentations and a variety of types of writing
- Empathising with characters and ideas who experience a range of feelings of emotions, through reading or listening to literature and taking part in drama
- ‘read’ their audience emotionally, whether it is an audience for their writing or their drama
- Explore how writers convey feelings and mood, eg. through language, sound, word choice, imagery, alliteration, rhythm and rhyme
- Become more responsive to what others feel eg. though listening to what they say and observing their body language, responding to the feelings of others in the group or role-play
SPECIFIC CONTENT IDEAS
- Work to extend feeling vocabulary with ‘feelings words’ eg ‘feelings word of the week’. Encourage pupils to explore and include new words in oral and written work and give recognition to pupils who use more complex words to describe what they are feeling
- Discuss how a story, poem, film or television programme makes us feel – explore individual reactions to the piece – what range of emotions does it generate in us? What feeling is the writer/film or programme trying to convey? What devices do they use to achieve this?
- Take a cluster of feelings and develop work on that, eg. write a poem in a particular mood, feeling or atmosphere, perhaps linked to music or art. ‘Prose polaroids’ (word pictures) – individual or group reflection then fill a word square with words around a mood or feeling, body sculpting to create a mood
- Explore what makes us laugh? Humour though the ages, ‘getting it’ or not, social aspects of humour, why is Shakespeare not funny any more? ‘In’ jokes and ‘out’ jokes, ‘cool’ humour (eg study latest television comedies that appeal to young people – why are they appealing? Contrast the shows with those your nan likes).
- Tragedy/comedy – what’s the key difference, how is the difference created, what attracts us to one or both, why do children’s films/stories always end happily, adult’s often not?
- Compare and contrast the ways information is presented in different forms, eg. orally, in text, visually, web page, diagrams, prose and explore the impact of these different forms on the feelings of the audience
- Drama – warm up, movements, body language, freeze framing, statues, tableaux to illustrate a particular mood or feeling
- Museum of feelings/emotions or museum of one specific emotion, eg joy. Small group become the ‘sculptors’, others are the ‘statues’, rest of the class is the audience who have to move around the museum and guess what emotions are being conveyed or comment on how well the statues convey the emotion
- Making or mirroring facial expressions – what mood or feeling am I trying to convey/how does the other person feel?
- Stage fighting – learning to control your body and your aggression (can help with aggressive pupils, gives a sense of control and detachment. Links with martial arts)
- ‘Hello’ games – how many ways can you say a word. What emotions can it convey?
- Mask work – use Greek-type masks that convey a particular emotion – pairs or group theatre work
- Drama – warm-down, breathing exercises, relaxations, visualisations
- Advertisements – the techniques they use to shape and affect moods, feeling and desires
- Web source: https://www.dorsetforyou.gov.uk/media/pdf/2/8/SEAL_and_English.pdf
They talked a lot about technology in ELT. A panel of technology experts, bringing experiences from outside the ELT world, discussed trends such as machine translation, artificial intelligence, chatbots and future workplaces. Their perspectives should challenge our current thinking, and help us consider future possibilities.
We were listening to the experts describing their experiences with teaching English using new technologies.
The listeners asked questions such as;
- What does exactly technology bring to our English teaching?
- Can technology substitute the teachers?
- Do we have to be the digital teachers?
- Will technology improve the education in the poor countries?
Since computers started to be introduced in language learning (and in education in
general) people have rightly asked whether the investment we are making in these
technologies gives us value for money. As digital technologies have taken a hold
in society in general, this particular question is not asked quite so often, but it is
still important to make sure that the technologies that we have available are used
effectively. People are always tempted to try to make an argument for technology
having an impact on the development of pedagogy and in many cases we can see
that the use of technology has enabled teachers to re-think what they are doing.
We also see people trying to populate this domain by talking about notions like the
‘flipped classroom’, ostensibly a methodology that sees input as occurring at ‘home’
and physical classrooms being used as spaces to explore what has been presented
in the input. This is far from being a new idea, but these agendas are pushed for
a while and then disappear again. What is a contender for a methodology that is
central to the world of technology and language learning is that of blended learning
(Motteram and Sharma, 2009). We see this methodology still being developed, but
when handled best it is the most likely candidate for a starting point for getting
teachers to work with technology in their practice. It is still the case that most
teachers work in physical classrooms and looking at ways that these spaces can
be augmented with digital technologies is a very good starting point.
Empowering teachers through continuous professional development:frameworks, practices and promises
Gabriel Díaz Maggioli
National Teacher Education College, Uruguay
April 4, 2017
Main Points of Presentation
REALITY CHECK 2002
“…while particular ‘lighthouse’ schools and school systems are the exception, my sense is that professional development as it is experienced by most teachers and principals is pretty much like it has always been—unfocused, insufficient, and irrelevant to the day-to-day problems faced by front line educators. Put another way, a great deal more is known today about good staff development than is regularly practiced in schools.”
Dennis Sparks, 2002
I am a passionate non- native English teacher. Teaching is a big part of my life. For that understanding, I am a lifelong scholar.
I am in blended learning/ training and flipped classroom.
The traditional physical classroom settings for my lessons are not efficient enough.
In my view, technology gives us many new possibilities.
I prefer blended learning, which means, taking advantage of both, traditional f2f techniques and opportunities confronted by new technologies.
Moreover, thinking in a foreign language is exactly what I want my students to accomplish. I teach without a bridge language.
When I teach Polish, my foreigners and I have to speak only Polish, and my English classes are run entirely in English.
This means they are required to forget about native language and start speaking as well as thinking in a foreign language.
My students learn English in different contexts, mostly singing phrases, expressions, collocation, idioms, and phrasal verbs also telling stories. Moreover, I encourage them to talk to everybody, even to themselves in a foreign language. As a result of this, they can establish a set of compelling stories.
I correct only little mistakes. I do not want them to stop talking. I also encourage my students to listen to songs, watch movies with subtitles in a language they learn, read a lot and so forth.
Moreover, I often use YouTube videos to improve student’s pronunciation, as well as, movies with English subtitles and of course songs.
I believe in using music in English teaching. My approach is that we do not speak the language, but we sing it.
English bears a unique melody, rhythm as well as intonation.
My students enjoy English lessons with me because they are never bored.
According to Horn and Staker, blended learning is:
“Any time a student learns, at least in part, at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home and, at least in part, through online delivery with some element of student control over time, place, path, and pace. The modalities along each student’s learning path within a course or subject are connected to provide an integrated learning experience.”
The most significant piece of the definition is the “element of student control” highlighting the flowing instructional models to enable improved student-centered learning, giving students greater than before control over the time, place, path, and the step of their learning tracks.
Blended learning offers a balanced approach, focused on redesigning instructional models first, then applying technology, not as the driver, but as the supporter, for high-quality learning experiences that allow a teacher to personalize and make the most of the learning.
The technology helps to supply instructors with data, expand student choices for educational resources and learning materials, and deliver opportunities for students to practice and to exhibit the high-character performance.
Broadly speaking, I am for blended learning, which means taking advantage of both traditional f2f techniques and possibilities presented by new technologies.
Flipped Classrooms provide pre-recorded material (video or audio) followed by classroom activities. Learners watch the video before or after the class; this happens outside F2F meetings. Thank’s to that class time can be used for interaction, such as Q@A sessions, discussions, exercises other learning activities.
This is the unadulterated room to “invert” doings in the class with activities outside the instruction distance.
Flipping is not just about video and technology.
Moreover, technology does not replace good teaching. It enhances good education.
Flipping helps us to get the best use of class time. It is a methodology that allows the teacher to involve students intensely in the collaborative community and develop a shared problem-solving workshop.
My students very frequently have to find some info, primarily online, and in class, they present materials on a particular subject. We use it as a base for richer analysis and activities.
Sometimes, instead of giving lectures, I call for learners to watch chosen PPT, videos or podcasts at home, hence when we meet in the course of study, we can concentrate on the debate, as well as interpretation of the problem.
In my point of view, there are some significant ways to involve students during a lecture such as small demonstrations, surveyed by group debate as well as PPT lecture, followed by expounding, discussing and particularizing the material.
I am convinced that dialogue is necessary for my Polish History and Culture lectures. I take advantage of novel methods to build up active learning skills and to encourage students toward further education, or else to mature students’ thinking skills. For most of my learners, the techniques I use are fresh. They come to study in Poland from all the Globe, and the majority of them are not used to blended learning as well as flipped classes.
They have to be talked into active learning and taking the responsibility of their own knowledge. My role as a teacher is to be a learning coach, mentor and a source of support as well as inspiration.
Flipping provides students opportunities such as; interactive questioning, mind exploration, answer “why this is important for me to recognize this?” and student-created content.
During my language classes, I also use flipped methods because I believe in learning by researching as well as having fun while studying.
• Clayton Christensen Institute: What Is Blended Learning?
• Report: iNACOL Blended Learning Teacher Competency Framework
• Report: Mean What You Say: Defining and Integrating Personalized, Blended and Competency Education
• Report: Maximizing Competency Education and Blended Learning: Insights from Experts
• Wolff, Lutz-Christian, and Jenny Chan. “Defining Flipped Classrooms. “Flipped Classrooms for Legal Education. Springer Singapore, 2016. 9-13.
Thank you very much for the post by Sarah Priestley.
I am going to use this lesson plan, starting from today.
This lesson plan can be adapted to any level from Intermediate to C2, depending on the difficulty of the audio recordings you use in the listening stage 3 and the vocabulary used in stage 4. I did it in an 80 minute lesson with a C2 adult class. If you’re short of time you could skip stage 2 (the discussion) or shorten the number of tasks for this part. You can download the pdf handout here.
Don’t tell ss the topic of the lesson yet. Instead, ask them to note down the qualities of a good language teacher. Get them to compare with a partner and have brief group feedback. Here’s what my C2 conversation class came up with in June 2016:
Interestingly enough, I asked my group whether knowledge of the language was a quality to consider, as I noticed that nobody had mentioned it. They…
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