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The Six Stages of Second-Language Acquisition

http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/language-acquisition-overviewimg_9807

Pre-production This is also called “the silent period,” when the student takes in the new language but does not speak it. This period often lasts six weeks or longer, depending on the individual.
Early production The individual begins to speak using short words and sentences, but the emphasis is still on listening and absorbing the new language. There will be many errors in the early production stage.
Speech Emergent Speech becomes more frequent, words and sentences are longer, but the individual still relies heavily on context clues and familiar topics. Vocabulary continues to increase and errors begin to decrease, especially in common or repeated interactions.
Beginning Fluency Speech is fairly fluent in social situations with minimal errors. New contexts and academic language are challenging and the individual will struggle to express themselves due to gaps in vocabulary and appropriate phrases.
Intermediate Fluency Communicating in the second language is fluent, especially in social language situations. The individual is able to speak almost fluently in new situations or in academic areas, but there will be gaps in vocabulary knowledge and some unknown expressions. There are very few errors, and the individual is able to demonstrate higher order thinking skills in the second language such as offering an opinion or analyzing a problem.
Advanced Fluency The individual communicates fluently in all contexts and can maneuver successfully in new contexts and when exposed to new academic information. At this stage, the individual may still have an accent and use idiomatic expressions incorrectly at times, but the individual is essentially fluent and comfortable communicating in the second language.

How long does it take for a language learner to go through these stages? Just as in any other learning situation, it depends on the individual. One of the major contributors to accelerated second language learning is the strength of first language skills. Language researchers such as Jim Cummins, Catherine Snow, Lily Wong Filmore and Stephen Krashen have studied this topic in a variety of ways for many years. The general consensus is that it takes between five to seven years for an individual to achieve advanced fluency. This generally applies to individuals who have strong first language and literacy skills. If an individual has not fully developed first language and literacy skills, it may take between seven to ten years to reach advanced fluency. It is very important to note that every ELL student comes with his or her own unique language and education background, and this will have an impact on their English learning process.

It is also important to keep in mind that the understood goal for American ELL students is Advanced Fluency, which includes fluency in academic contexts as well as social contexts. Teachers often get frustrated when ELL students appear to be fluent because they have strong social English skills, but then they do not participate well in academic projects and discussions. Teachers who are aware of ELL students’ need to develop academic language fluency in English will be much better prepared to assist those students in becoming academically successful. (Learn more about academic language in Colorín Colorado’s academic language resource section.)

 

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Hi to My Online Students

ID_mojeHi to My Online Students,

I am an enthusiastic online non-native English teacher. I have been teaching English online since 2010. I have taught children as well as adults. I have a master’s degree in education from the University of Wroclaw, Poland, Philology, Linguistics Jul 1974. After 40 years of teaching, I grow into an experienced online professional tutor. I specialize in Conversational English. I also prepare, for various tests, including the Cambridge and Oxford standardized exams.

I take advantage of new technologies. My approach is Teaching English with Technology. I use blended learning, flipping the classroom, learning by teaching or encouraging change from passive to fully active learners are significant implements in my teaching/ learning.

If you wish to practice speaking, I’d be happy to help you develop a study plan.  Feel free to look at my teaching profile and class offerings and send me a message if you think I can help you.
I specialize in Conversational English Online courses.
Moreover, I have been successfully preparing for English exams since a long time ago.
Why don’t you check my profile here or just Google me?
Look forward to hearing from you.
Greetings,
Halina Ostańkowicz – Bazan

 

Non -Native and Native English Teachers

Native English Teacher or non- Native English Teachers

tylkoja

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Is English a Global Language?

 

The contentious issue of (non)nativeness remains unanswered.
Nowadays, being an NNEST or NNEST should not count but rather teachers’ professional capabilities.
The presentation provides a forum for reflection and discussion about NNESTs.
We should value professional and personal qualities over ‘nativeness.’
The skills and qualities that make an effective language teacher are the most significant.
Both ‘NESTs’ and ‘NNESTs’ are expected to be competent teachers, each with excellent professional skills.
What can non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) perform better?
What can native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) manage better?

 

Intonation in English language teaching

Opening Plenary by Jane Setter
Introduction
Intonation is one of the earliest acquired aspects of speech; the crymelodies of infants are influenced by the intonation of their mothers, and very small toddlers are able to use intonation to indicate turn taking patterns in play conversations before they can form words. It plays a vital role in successful communication in English, as it does in other languages. If this is true, why is intonation neglected in English language pronunciation teaching, and how can it be taught effectively?
This presentation takes the audience into the seldom-navigated region of intonation in English language teaching, focusing on the role of three main elements: tonality, tonicity and tone. Drawing on material from a number of different sources, we explore the role of intonation in English, and look at which elements are teachable, which are learnable, what resources are available to the teacher and the learner, and how intonation might be approached in the English language classroom and as a self-access learning activity. Expect a multimedia, audience participation experience.
Pronunciation

from English Grammar Today
Pronunciation means how we say words. Most people speak the dialect of standard English with an accent that belongs to the part of the country they come from or live in. Learners of British English commonly hear RP (received pronunciation), which is an accent often used on the BBC and other news media and in some course materials for language learners, but it is also common to hear a variety of regional accents of English from across the world.

How we use spoken stress and rhythm is also an important part of pronunciation. For example, it is important to know which syllables in a word are stressed and how different patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables are pronounced. There are also common patterns of intonation in English which enable us to give special emphasis to particular words, phrases and sentences.
See also: Dialect, British and American English, SpellingIntonation

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Here are some snapshots from the presentstion.

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Outside in: bringing new technology perspectives to ELT

Presenter(s):
Geoff stead
Donald Clark
Paul Driver
Yvonne Rogers
Session details:

They talked  a lot about technology in ELT. A panel of technology experts, bringing experiences from outside the ELT world,  discussed trends such as machine translation, artificial intelligence, chatbots and future workplaces. Their perspectives should challenge our current thinking, and help us consider future possibilities.

IATEFL Online Conference in Glasgow, 2017

We were listening to the experts describing their experiences  with teaching English using new technologies.

The listeners asked questions such as;

  • What does exactly technology bring to our English teaching?
  • Can technology substitute  the teachers?
  • Do we have to be the digital teachers?
  • Will technology improve the education in the poor countries?

 Since computers started to be introduced in language learning (and in education in
general) people have rightly asked whether the investment we are making in these
technologies gives us value for money. As digital technologies have taken a hold
in society in general, this particular question is not asked quite so often, but it is
still important to make sure that the technologies that we have available are used
effectively. People are always tempted to try to make an argument for technology
having an impact on the development of pedagogy and in many cases we can see
that the use of technology has enabled teachers to re-think what they are doing.
We also see people trying to populate this domain by talking about notions like the
‘flipped classroom’, ostensibly a methodology that sees input as occurring at ‘home’
and physical classrooms being used as spaces to explore what has been presented
in the input. This is far from being a new idea, but these agendas are pushed for
a while and then disappear again. What is a contender for a methodology that is
central to the world of technology and language learning is that of blended learning
(Motteram and Sharma, 2009). We see this methodology still being developed, but
when handled best it is the most likely candidate for a starting point for getting
teachers to work with technology in their practice. It is still the case that most
teachers work in physical classrooms and looking at ways that these spaces can
be augmented with digital technologies is a very good starting point.

Innovations in learning technologies for English language teaching

 

Plenary session by Gabriel Diaz Maggioli

Empowering teachers through continuous professional development:frameworks, practices and promises
Gabriel Díaz  Maggioli
National Teacher Education College, Uruguay
April 4, 2017
9:00 –10:20

Main Points of Presentation

REALITY CHECK 2002
“…while particular ‘lighthouse’ schools and school systems are the exception, my sense is that professional development as it is experienced by most teachers and principals is pretty much like it has always been—unfocused, insufficient, and irrelevant to the day-to-day problems faced by front line educators. Put another way, a great deal more is known today about good staff development than is regularly practiced in schools.”
Dennis Sparks, 2002

(more…)

IATEFL Online Conference in Glasgow, 2017

Tune in for live coverage from Glasgow on Monday 3rd April

 

 

Following my previous year experience, I am willing to write a few blog posts about the video content (streamed or recorded interviews or video sessions) published on the IATEFL Online site during the 2017 IATEFL Conference.
Watch the 2017 IATEFL Conference live online
51st Annual International IATEFL Conference and Exhibition
SEC, Glasgow, UK
4th-7th April 2017
Pre-Conference Events and Associates’ Day, 3rd April 2017

 

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