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The Lack of Correlation among University Teaching, Secondary School Teaching and Primary School Teaching
There is a lack of connection between secondary school textbooks and college teaching materials, which is a barrier to English learners. In the teaching material of university, middle-school and primary school in our country, there are many unnecessary repetitive content (Tian, Jiu, Xu, & Wang, 2011). And there are different emphases in different stages of teaching. In primary and secondary schools, English learning is mainly based on a few textbooks, which mainly focuses on the teaching of grammar. Therefore, the students’ vocabulary is relatively poor, and the ability of language application is poor. College English is focused on to grasp the usage of vocabulary and a variety of expression, not to teach grammar systematically. This is detrimental to the cultivation of students’ practical ability, and can lead to negative consequences.
Life-Related Teaching Method Life-related teaching method refers to integrate English teaching into life, learn English in life, master the basic skills of English in practice. Life-related teaching is an English teaching which is based on life. It is different from the traditional teaching methods in the selection of teaching materials, teaching process and teaching effect. life-related teaching is to let students learn English out of class, and to learn English in practice. Life-related teaching method breaks the traditional English teaching mode, and the students are liberated from the shackles of the traditional English teaching, which makes the students actively integrate into the teaching. Life-related teaching puts forward higher requirements to English teachers’ teaching level and teaching theory (Xu, 2010). In the teaching level, it requires teachers to have a deep understanding of the teaching content, select the appropriate teaching material from life, and introduce the life material into the practical English teaching. In the aspect of teaching theory, the traditional English teaching pays attention to the training of students’ vocabulary, grammar and sentence pattern, and the English teachers only need to master the theoretical knowledge of vocabulary, grammar, sentence patterns and so on. The life-related teaching attaches great importance to cultivate the students’ comprehensive ability in our daily life, which requires the English teachers to master rich English teaching theory. Therefore, in the process of implementing English teaching, the college can refer to the life-related teaching method. 3.3. Task-Based Teaching Method Task-based teaching method is to cultivate students’ confidence in learning English through the gradual accumulation of the task. Task-based English teaching method is based on the task of the basic module, in the process of English teaching, to complete a series of tasks. In this process, English teachers and students can get along very well, and English teachers and students will be able to speak English in a real environment, to improve students’ ability of English communication. Task-based teaching method compares with the traditional English teaching has the following advantages: first, task-based English teaching method has a very clear teaching goal; Second, the task-based teaching method is a kind of student-centered English teaching methods; Third, task-based teaching method is carried out around the students, each student has a certain task, prompting students to actively participate in the teaching of English. Task-based English teaching method not only put forward higher requirements to the English teachers in colleges and universities, but also put forward higher requirements to the students. In the aspect of English teachers, task-based teaching method requires English teachers to have a high comprehensive quality and strong professional knowledge, in the process of task allocation, to pay attention to the difficulty of the task. In the aspect of students, the task-based English teaching method requires that each student has a certain task, and everyone can’t be lazy. Therefore, in the process of implementing English teaching, the college can refer to the task-based teaching method. 3.4. Group-Divided and Cooperative Teaching Method Group-divided and cooperative teaching method is according to the interests and the English levels, divide students into groups. Each group as a small team, English teachers’ teaching according to the actual situation of each team, at the same time, the requirement between team members, learn from each other, communicate with each other. According to the English teachers’ teaching method, choose the appropriate method of learning English. On the one hand, group-divided and cooperative learning can enhance students’ sense of team cooperation. On the other hand, it can improve students’ ability to communicate in English quickly.
Group-divided and cooperative teaching method is based on students’ autonomous learning. In the process of English teaching, through the communication between the team members, stimulate students’ interest in learning English.
In the process of group-divided and cooperative teaching, not only can strengthen students’ team cooperation consciousness and responsibility, but also can achieve a comprehensive and sustainable development of students’ learning English. Therefore, in the process of implementing English teaching, the college can refer to the group-divided and cooperative teaching method.
With the pace of the globalization and internationalization of the world economy accelerating, English, as a communication tool, is becoming more and more important. The goal of English Teaching in colleges and universities is to cultivate students’ English practical ability and intercultural communicative competence through the use of effective English teaching methods. In order to improve the present situation of the current college English teaching methods, promote the reform of English teaching methods, improve teaching quality, colleges and universities should attach importance to reform of college English teaching, and actively promote the implementation of university teaching methods, to provide a good external environment for the reform of College English teaching.
AAMC (2005). Report VII Contemporary Issues in Medicine: Musculoskeletal Medicine Education, Medical School Objectives Project No. VII. Washington DC: Association of American Medical Colleges. Abou-Raya, A., & Abou-Raya, S. (2010). The Inadequacies of Musculoskeletal Education. Clinical Rheumatology, 29, 1121-1126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-010-1527-y Akesson, K., Dreinhofer, K. E., & Woolf, A. D. (2003). Improved Education in Musculoskeletal Conditions Is Necessary for All Doctors. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81, 677-683. Almoallim, H., Bukhari, E., Amasaib, W., & Zaini, R. (2012). How to Avoid Delay in SLE Diagnosis and Management. In H. Almoallim (Ed.), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (pp. 219-242). Croatia: InTech. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/26498 Al-Nammari, S. S., James, B. K., & Ramachandran, M. (2009). The Inadequacy of Musculoskeletal Knowledge after Foundation Training in the United Kingdom. The Bone and Joint Journal, 19, 1413-1418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620x.91b11.22445 Tian, Y., Jiu, W. H., Xu, F. F., & Wang, X. D. (2011). Investigation and Analysis of Female Teachers’ Burnout at Hainan Colleges and Universities. Northwest Medical Education, 19, 378-380. Wang, X. J. (2010). Investigation and Analysis of the Burnout Status of College Female English Teachers. Journal of Jinan Vocational College, 1, 37-38, 41. Xu, H. Y. (2010). A Study of University English Teachers’ Prof
There are numerous definitions of online learning in the literature, definitions that reflect the diversity of practice and associated technologies. Carliner (1999) defines online learning as educational material that is presented on a computer. Khan (1997) defines online instruction as an innovative approach to delivering instruction to a remote audience, using the Web as the medium.
However, online learning involves more than just the presentation and distribution of the materials using the Web: the learner and the learning process should be the focus of online learning.
Teaching face-to-face and teaching online are both teaching, but they are qualitatively different. Online education starts when faculty moves from the traditional classroom to the online classroom. There are some things that the two have in common, but there are also plenty of differences.
1. The online teacher plays the role of guiding students through one or more online learning experiences. These experiences are every so often designed and
planned long before the course starts so that the teacher can devote more time to guiding the students and less time preparing lessons. Within this role, the teacher directs and redirects the attention of learners toward fundamental concepts and ideas.
2. Learning is hard work and studying online can sometimes feel isolated, confusing, or discouraging without the guide.
As a result, the effective online teacher makes intentional efforts to communicate precise encouraging messages to individual learners and the group as a whole. Moreover, even when providing constructive feedback, the teacher as supporter finds a way to promote positive messages alongside the critiques.
Encouragement and welcoming support are an important approach to maintaining an overall positive morale in the class. At times, learners may fall into negative comments about themselves, the class, or their classmates (even the instructor, on occasion). The coach makes every effort to find ways to listen, respect the learner’s frustrations, but also to help them reframe the situation in a manner that students are more active and creative.
3. Many people focus on the role of the teacher as a role model, and that is valuable. However, the role of the coach is just as important, even more, important if we want learners to develop high levels of competence and confidence. The online teacher must move beyond just modeling a depth motivation for the subject and personal skill with the content. The mentor needs to find ways to hand the matter over to the students to do something with it. Applied projects and papers work well for this, and it gives the teacher an opportunity to be a coach and advisor.
4. Learners need some feedback about their work. How are they doing? Are they getting closer to meeting the learning objectives or not? The effective online teacher finds ways to give thoughtful feedback to individual learners and, when appropriate, groups of students.
5. Without intentional efforts to build a positive social environment, online learning can feel lonely and impersonal. As a result, the online teacher must serve as an encouraging host, facilitating introductions, using discussion starters to enable conversations among students, and taking the time to get to know students and referencing that knowledge in interactions with them.
6. The whole thing is documented in an online course. The teacher can tell when and how many times student logs in the course, what pages were viewed or not, how many discussions posts the student contributed, and much more. This data can be abused, but it can also be used to make adjustments and informed decisions by an online teacher. If a student is not logged in or failing to visit the pages in the course with the direct instructions, the coach points that out to the learners or reorganizes the content so that it is easier to find.
7. Online courses are rich with content and sometimes students can get lost in all that content. The teacher as a regulator intentionally releases content in chunks that are appropriate for educated people. Sometimes this comes in the course of only publishing content one week at a time. Other times, the teacher releases it all at once but directs students only to focus on individual parts at a time. Another key is to break content into smaller segments. Rather than a twenty-page document of instructions, it is better to consider breaking it into ten two-page documents.
8. Good teachers are lifelong learners, and they can model that learning for their students in a variety of ways in the online classroom. The teacher can be active (but not too active or it will silence students) participant in online discussions, sharing what they are learning about the subject, and even complete all or fragments of some assignments, sharing their work with the students. The process goes a long way to making an exciting and dynamic online learning community where one and all in the community commits to exemplifying the qualities of a lifelong learner.
What challenges are involved in learning online?
Perhaps one of the greatest challenges for teachers is to deliver a consistent experience to a large and varied general populations.
Instructors and scholars should not carry through device management. Their priorities should be placed on learning.
Technology is not the creator. Strong belief in innovation is less significant than the demands of scholars and instructors.
Instructors deliver a well-defined responsibility with implementing, and identifying, the best combination of digital learning tools for each scholar.
Different approaches to learning, such as project-based learning, progressive education, game-based learning, and more, is a part of the personalized, blended learning model. Accordingly, such innovations will call for demonstration how their package improves learning outcomes.
Most challenges have to do with the procedures, but they have nothing to do with the teaching itself. To make it simple, if you know how to teach, all you need to do is learn about the elementary online tools available for online teaching, and begin using them.
As cited earlier, teaching an online class can be time-consuming. As well, building up an online course can be overpowering. Finding out and becoming proficient using an LMS takes time, and uploading materials to the online environment is also demanding and needs much time. Once you know how to use the LMS, you require getting to teach students through it.
The time necessary to generate a new class can be a problem with developing online classes.
The instructor should be able to take care of the subject matter rather than spend Countless times is managing difficulties connected with the technology.
One of the most recommended ways to cope with the additional time required for teaching online classes is to decrease the class size.
Students also regularly run into technological problems and they need support with technology issues.
Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ed/precollege/undergrad/ptacc/online-teaching.pdf
Also, from my perspective, a successful teaching and learning online involve
• Understanding and easiness in the use of technology.
• Rethinking, and reexamining course objectives, activities, and assessments.
• Creating a community of learners.
• Supporting discussions.
Improving good skills in the use of technology.
• Understanding that the learning management system and other Web technologies function enable coaches to create and provide detailed instruction.
• Planning and creating course goals, activities, and assessments can take substantial time and free energy. Such redesign can be especially successful when started well in advance of the course start date.
Building a community of learners is a challenge.
• The necessity to keep in regular contact with students and comprehend various kinds of dialogue as well as different goals.
• Setting up content-specific discussions to provide problem-solving and establish growing proficiency in course outcomes.
• Designating areas for practical questions that reduce frustration, and gives an opportunity to help each other
• Arranging discussions that deliver a social channel for students increases a learning community by creating interconnection among learners.
It is also important to note that sending private and frequent initial e-mails that encourage/praise the stellar work or express concern in an online student absenteeism shows students that you are online and monitoring all activity. Such deliberate attempts at contact are especially important in demonstrating active instructor presence in the online environment.
Facilitating discussions online is not as easy as it may seem. Posting a question and expecting learners to generate responses that resemble an integrated, face-to-face dialogue rarely happens. Setting expectations for how discussions should proceed is the first step in creating in-depth, integrated responses and meaningful exchanges. In any setting, content-specific dialogue can cause disagreements or require clarifications. In a face-to-face class, instructors interject if a discussion is heading in the wrong direction or praise and emphasize well-thought out responses. The online facilitator should expect to do the same. Students need to feel comfortable in challenging each other’s discussion contributions in tactful, constructive ways or asking the peers to support their claims with research. As facilitators, instructors need to demonstrate how this can happen in the online environment.
Boettcher, J.V. & Conrad, R. M. (2010) E-Coaching Success Tips http://www.designingforlearning.info/services/writing/ecoach/index.htm
Accessed May 30, 2011. A library of over 80 tips developed over 2006 – 2010.
Boettcher, J. V. (2007). Ten Core Principles for Designing Effective Learning Environments: Insights from Brain Research and Pedagogical Theory. http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=54. (February 16, 2009).
Boettcher, J. V., & Conrad, R. M. (2010).
The Online Teaching Survival Guide: Simple and Practical Pedagogical Tips (1 ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Conrad, R. M., and Donaldson, J. A. (2004). Engaging the online learner: Activities and resources for creative instruction, Jossey-Bass <www.josseybass.com> Pp. 123.
Fischer, K. Reiss, D. and Young, A. (2005). Ten tips for generating engaged online discussion. Austin, TX, University of Texas. http://wordsworth2.net/activelearning/ecacdiscustips.htm (Accessed August 27, 2007) A helpful set of concise tips that offer ideas and suggestions for being effective at facilitating discussions in electronic environments. More tips on getting started in active online learning are at <wordsworth2.net/activelearning/ecacteachtips.htm>.
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., and Archer, W. (2000). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. The Internet and Higher Education 2(2/3): 87 – 105.
Goodyear, P. (2002) Psychological foundations for networked learning. Networked learning: perspectives and issues. Pp. 49-75 2002. Springer-Verlag. New York, Inc.
Grogan, G. (2005). The Design of Online Discussions to Achieve Good Learning
Results. Retrieved August 27, 2007, from http://www.elearningeuropa.info/index.php?page=doc&doc_id=6713&doclng=6&menuzone=1
Mabrito, M. 2004. Guidelines for establishing interactivity in online courses. Innovate 1
(2). Retrieved August 27, 2007, from http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=12
Painter, C., Coffin C. & Hewings, A. (2003) Impacts of directed tutorial activities in computer conferencing: a case study. Distance Education 24(2): 159-174.
Pelz, B. (2004). (My) Three principles of effective online pedagogy. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 8(3). Retrieved May 31, 2011from http://sloanconsortium.org/sites/default/files/v8n3_pelz_1.pdf. Requires login.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962) Thought and language. (E. Hanfmann and G. Vakar, Trans.) Cambridge, MIT Press. pp. 344.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 159.
Non- native English Teacher.
Let’s be the majority, not the minority. We shake our heads at the unpleasant (often an understatement!) things our ancestors have done in the name of labels and arbitrary categories, but let’s remember that we also need to shake our heads and stand up against what’s happening now. This is the only way to rid our profession of discrimination and ensure that we have qualified teachers teaching English rather than people who have been hired because their first language is a particular variety of English and (in some cases) because they have white skin.
Hands up, dear readers, those who of you who think I am a ‘native speaker’ of British English.
Hands up if you think I am from England.
“Where are you from?”
It’s one of the earliest questions we teach learners how to ask. And yet it can be one of the most difficult and complicated to answer.
I was born in Chichester, a little town in the south of England.
I’ve never lived there. I spent the first two years of my life in a little village near Bognor Regis (Felpham, for any Sussex dwellers!). My earliest memories of this part of England, though, come from visits to relatives subsequent to moving to the other end of the world.
From the age of 2 to the age of 17, I lived in Botswana, though I went to a boarding school in South Africa (Mafeking) for secondary school.
My mum is English…
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https://www.youtube.com/embed/BHp-8tYgQIs“>Language Learning Theories
- What learning theories do you follow and why?
- How do you incorporate them into your teaching? Try to be as specific as you can.
How People Learn
Today, the primary theory is socio-constructivist—in which knowledge is understood to be importantly shaped by the context in which it is situated, and is actively constructed through social negotiation with others. On this understanding, learning environments should be where:
- Constructive, self-regulated learning is fostered
- The learning is sensitive to the context
- It will often be collaborative
Theoretical concepts do not yield concrete prescriptions for classroom application, but the good theory can be used flexibly and creatively by teachers in their planning and educational practice. At the same time, not all learning takes place in the classroom as much of it occurs at home, on the sports field, in museums and so forth (non-formal education), and sometimes implicitly and effortlessly (informal learning).
In the mid-1950s, humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow created a theory of basic, psychological and self-fulfillment needs that motivate individuals to move consciously or subconsciously through levels or tiers based on our inner and outer satisfaction of those met or unmet needs. I find this theory eternally relevant for students and adults, especially in today’s education.
Become an active learner. The brain works on a use-it-or-lose-it style, meaning you must apply whatever you learn.
And then use the new phrase or character in a real situation: with a language partner or writing online.
Learning the words and phrases through original videos makes them stick quickly, making you learn faster.
Make language learning a passion.
Merge the fun of language learning with the commitment to follow through. Knowing that you want to learn a new language is not enough to get us actually to take action. Give yourself clarity on what exactly compels you to learn a new language. Figure out the why behind your desire to learn. What’s the goal behind the goal? What’s the bigger picture here? How will learn a new language open opportunities in your future? Just answering these questions for yourself will motivate you to much higher level to take action when necessary.
When we decide to teach adults, the awareness, as well as comprehension of whom we teach and what
we learn, is essential here.
1) Adults do not want to waste the time.
Some adults take language courses because of a job requirement while others have their particular
goal to attain (such as a language exam or a professional interview). Adults expect direct,
practical benefit. All of them will raise the similar questions
• What for,
• Who (is my teacher?),
• What else could I achieve instead?
• Is the time well spent?
All lessons must have a definite outcome, perhaps even a practical takeaway. It is necessary to
define specific profits at the end of the lesson and associate the benefits to the individual
2) Adults are reflective learners; they think about
• what is challenging or where I require more support
• different learning strategies and self-evaluation
• maintaining a sense of responsibility for learning and achieving goals
3) Motivation is varied, and flexibility is crucial.
Teachers have to be flexible and ready for different approaches, wide-ranging content or even
unconventional paths to lead to the same goal.
Creating a context for meaningful learning is one of the tasks.
4) Mature students feel the need for direct benefit as well as valuable language skills.
Learners are looking for a solution to an exact problem at hand, immediately.
• The fundamental question is: “What should I do to get this to work?”
• Mature learners usually want to accomplish a particular task, or at least, see a noticeable
benefit for the future.
• Adults want to use language for a real-world reason.
5) The different abilities of adult learners are evident.
Child and Adult Learning Characteristics
- Rely on others to decide what is important to be learned.Accept the information being presented at face value.
Expect what they are learning to be useful in their long-term future.
Have little or no experience upon which to draw, are relatively “blank slates.”
- Decide for themselves what is important to be learned.
Need to validate the information based on their beliefs and values.
- Expect what they are learning to be immediately useful.
- Have substantial experience upon which to draw.
- May have fixed viewpoints.
- They may have a recognized life context that determines their learning.
The adult learners need a greater sense of cooperation between the student and
teacher as they go on through the educational process (Zmeyov, 1998). Furthermore, experienced
individuals may bring supplementary skills such as a higher level of maturity and a different
understanding of world matters and geopolitics than traditional students (Byman, 2007).
Personally, I am against using grammar boards, linguistic terms and other abstractions in language
teaching. However, if they can help the mature student why do not explain the grammar rules?